Causes of various discharges in men: what is the norm, what is the pathology?

Few women know that men have vaginal discharge too. As with women, they occur normally in men and are odorless. Only in women is it called "leucorrhea" and they appear from the vagina, while men flow from the urethra. Of course, any pathological discharge indicates poor health and requires a doctor's visit.

Physiological discharge

A man's health is demonstrated by the physiological discharge from the urethral outlet, which is observed in the following cases:

Inflammation of the urethra, libidinal or physiological

This condition is observed when there is transparent discharge during sexual arousal or in the morning immediately after sleeping. Their number varies in different men and is directly related to the severity of sexual arousal. In any case, however, it is important to remember that such a discharge, when aroused, contains a small amount of sperm. So if they get on the partner's genitals, there is a risk that she will become pregnant. The function of the described secretions is to ensure the passage of spermatozoa through the urethra and vagina of a woman, where there is an acidic environment that is destructive to the "gums", and transform them into a viable form into the uterine cavity and fallopian tubesto bring about fertilization of the egg.

Defective prostator rhea

An increase in intra-abdominal pressure (when pressing) can lead to a transparent, odorless discharge with possibly gray-white stripes on the glans. Such a discharge is viscous and consists of a mixture of prostatic secretions and seminal vesicles. Such a discharge can occur at the end of urination, in which case it is called a vocal prostate ear. In exceptional cases, such a discharge occurs with a strong cough. They are not considered organic pathology, but only indicate a violation of the autonomic regulation of the functioning of the genital organs.


the man thought of the discharge when he was aroused

Smegma (preputial lubrication) is a secret that consists of secretions from the sebum glands of the head of the penis and the foreskin. Usually, if a man observes the rules of personal hygiene, such a discharge does not cause any inconvenience, since it is mechanically washed off with water. However, if hygiene is neglected, smegma accumulates and microorganisms multiply in it, which serves as a source of an unpleasant odor.

Sperm isolation

Sperm, which contain large numbers of sperm cells, are usually excreted during ejaculation (ejaculation) at the end of intercourse or spontaneously during sleep (wet dreams). The pollution occurs in adolescent boys and occurs either several times a month or 1 to 3 times a week (hormonal changes).

In some cases, spermatorrhea, that is, the outflow of sperm from the urethra without sexual intercourse and orgasm, indicates a pathology when the tone of the muscular layer of the vas deferens is disturbed in chronic inflammation or diseases of the brain.

Pathological discharge

All other secretions beyond the physiological are pathological and primarily indicate inflammation of the urethra or urethritis. The causes of urethritis in men are different, they can be both infectious and non-infectious.

Infectious causes are divided into specific and non-specific.

  • Specific etiological factors include sexually transmitted diseases such as trichomoniasis.
  • Nonspecific infectious urethritis is caused by opportunistic bacteria, viruses, and fungi:
    • Chlamydial urethritis;
    • Ureaplasma and mycoplasma urethritis;
    • Candidal urethritis or genitourinary candidiasis in men;
    • herpetic urethritis and others (Escherichia coli, streptococci, staphylococci).

Non-infectious inflammatory factors include:

  • allergic reaction
  • mechanical damage to the urethral mucosa
  • Irritation of the urethra with chemicals
  • Trauma, narrowing of the urethra.

Male discharge can vary in transparency and color. These parameters are influenced by the intensity of the inflammatory process, its stage and the etiological factor. The secretions are made up of fluid, mucus and various cells.

  • Cloudy - if there are a large number of cells, the discharge is cloudy in color.
  • Gray or thick - with a predominance of epithelial cells in the secretions, they turn gray and thick.
  • Yellow, green or yellow-green - when there are a large number of leukocytes in the secretions, they turn yellow and even green, they are also called purulent secretions.

It should be noted that with the same pathology, the nature of the discharge changes over time.

White discharge

White discharge in men has several reasons. First of all, candidiasis should be ruled out. With this disease, the following symptoms are observed:

  • the acorn has an unpleasant smell of sour bread or yeast;
  • the head of the penis is covered with a whitish coating;
  • Itching, burning, and even pain in the penis and perineal region are noted;
  • Discharge occurs while urinating;
  • there are reddish spots (irritation, inflammation) on the head and the inner surface of the foreskin;
  • Pain occurs during coitus, discomfort in the head and foreskin;
  • white discharge is not only found during urination;
  • the partner complains of itching and burning, painful intercourse, has a cheesy discharge.

In addition to genitourinary candidiasis, white discharge can be caused by chlamydia and / or ureaplasmosis and mycoplasmosis, and it can also speak of inflammation of the prostate, which is characterized by:

  • Difficulty and intermittent urination
  • a burning sensation in the perineum and urethra;
  • Discomfort with bowel movements;
  • frequent need to urinate;
  • sexual disorders (decreased libido and erection, rapid ejaculation, blurred orgasm).

It is important for men to remember that neglected prostatitis can lead not only to persistent erectile dysfunction but also to infertility.

Transparent selection

  • Chlamydia, ureaplasmosis - transparent mucus discharge is possible with chlamydial or ureaplasmic urethritis in the chronic stage of the disease. With a worsening of the process, the number of leukocytes in the secretions increases, and they take on a greenish or yellowish color.
  • Trichomoniasis, gonorrhea - also transparent, copious discharge with a lot of mucus, observed during the day, is possible at the initial stage of infection with trichomonas or gonococci. With chlamydia (ureaplasmosis) there is often a lack of subjective sensations (pain, itching, burning) and a transparent discharge occurs after a long period of abstinence from urination.

Yellow discharge

The purulent discharge, which includes the flaked epithelium of the urethra, significant numbers of white blood cells, and urethral mucus, is yellowish or greenish. Yellow discharge or mixed with green is a characteristic sign of sexually transmitted diseases.

  • Gonorrhea - the discharge is thick and has an unpleasant putrid odor, is observed during the day and is accompanied by painful urination. A man should first think about a gonorrhea infection when a classic pair of symptoms is present: discharge and itching.
  • Trichomoniasis - even with yellow discharge, trichomoniasis cannot be excluded, although it is often asymptomatic. With severe symptoms of Trichomonas infection, in addition to pus-like discharge, a man worries about burning and stinging when urinating, frequent and irresistible urination, a feeling of heaviness in the lower abdomen and discomfort in the perineum.

Discharge with odor

Violation of hygiene

In particular, an unpleasant smell from the perineum and penis can be observed if the conditions of intimate hygiene are not observed:

  • Smegma is an excellent breeding ground for microorganisms that will multiply and die, creating an unpleasant odor if you do not wash the external genital organs thoroughly on a regular basis.
  • In addition, smegma can have an unpleasant odor even with metabolic disorders (for example diabetes mellitus in men). At the same time, the release of smegma is so intense that it soaks the underwear.


Discharge with odor is most often observed with an infectious lesion of the urethra. First of all, gonorrheic urethritis should be ruled out - thick, yellow or green discharge observed throughout the day.

The sour smell of the discharge is a pathognomic symptom of urogenital candidiasis. An infection with fungi of the genus Candida provokes the appearance of a cheesy or milky-white discharge.

A fish-like secretion odor is also possible, which is inherent in gardnerellosis (called bacterial vaginosis), more characteristic of women, and in men the development of this disease is rather nonsense. Gardnerella belongs to conditionally pathogenic microorganisms and begins to actively multiply only under certain conditions:

  • Weakening immunity;
  • accompanying inflammatory processes of the genitourinary organs;
  • Intestinal dysbiosis;
  • the use of condoms with spermicides;
  • Long-term treatment with antibiotics or immunosuppressants (cytostatics, corticosteroids);
  • tight underwear made of synthetic fabrics;
  • promiscuous sex life.

Discharge with an unpleasant smell can also appear with diseases such as:

  • Balanitis (inflammation of the glans penis)
  • Balanoposthitis (inflammation of the inner surface of the foreskin).

However, in addition to discharge (not from the urethra, but smegma), these diseases are accompanied by hyperemia and itching, pain in the penis, as well as ulcers and wrinkles on the head.

Discharge with blood


Bloody discharge or discharge with streaks of blood is often seen with an infectious lesion of the urethra. An admixture of blood is characteristic of gonorrhea, trichomonas or candidal urethritis. In addition, the amount of blood is directly related to the intensity of the inflammation.

Often, blood is observed in chronic urethritis (the mucous membrane of the urethra is loosened and reacts with contact bleeding to the slightest irritation, including the passage of urine through the duct).

Medical manipulations

Another reason for this is trauma to the urethra during medical procedures. Rough bougienage, insertion and removal of a catheter, cystoscopy or smear can lead to immediate spotting. They differ in that the blood is scarlet, has no clots, and the bleeding itself stops very quickly.

Passage of stones, sand

Bloody discharge can be seen, among other things, when small stones or sand (from the kidneys or bladder) pass through the urethra. The hard surface of microliths damages the mucous membrane and blood vessel walls and causes bleeding. In this case, blood is most noticeable when urinating, which is accompanied by pain.


Macrohematuria (blood in the urine, visible when urinating) is also possible in the presence of glomerulonephritis. In this case there is a triad of symptoms: macrohematuria, edema, increased blood pressure.

Malignant tumors

One of the signs of malignant tumors of the genitourinary system (cancer of the prostate, penis, testicles and others) is the appearance of blood in a man. When this happens, the blood is brown or dark and clots may appear.

Isolation of blood with semen

We must not forget about such a symptom as the release of blood with sperm (hematospermia). Distinguish between false and real hematospermia. If it is wrong, the blood becomes mixed with the semen as it passes through the urethra. And with real blood, the ejaculate arrives before it even passes the urethra. Hematospermia is accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • Pain during ejaculation;
  • Urination disorders;
  • Pain and / or swelling in the genitals (testicles and scrotum);
  • Lower back discomfort and pain;
  • increased body temperature.

One of the causes of hematospermia is:

  • excessively active sex life or vice versa,
  • prolonged sexual abstinence, while during intercourse the vascular walls in the tissues of the genital organs tear
  • A previous surgery or biopsy can also cause blood to appear in the semen
  • Hematospermia occurs with benign and malignant neoplasms of the urogenital organs
  • in the presence of stones in the testicles and vas deferens
  • with varicose veins of the pelvic organs.